Kapila Rishi (Sk.). A great sage, a great adept of antiquity; the author of the Sankhya philosophy.
Sânkhya (Sk.). The system of philosophy founded by Kapila Rishi, a system of analytical metaphysics, and one of the six Darshanas or schools of philosophy. It discourses on numerical categories and the meaning of the twenty-five tatwas (the forces of nature in various degrees). This “atomistic school,” as some call it, explains nature by the interaction of twenty-four elements with purusha (spirit) modified by the three gunas (qualities), teaching the eternity of pradhâna (primordial, homogeneous matter), or the self-transformation of nature and the eternity of the human Egos.
Sânkhya Yoga (Sk.). The system of Yoga as set forth by the above school.
Tattwa (Sk.). Eternally existing “That”; also, the different principles in Nature, in their occult meaning. Tattwa Samâsa is a work of Sânkhya philosophy attributed to Kapila himself.
—Theosophical Glossary, H. P. Blavatsky
Selected Articles, Commentaries, etc.
Bibliography entry for Samkhya, from the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies
“Philosophy of the Hindus, Part I,” 1823, by T. H. Colebrooke
The Sacred Books of the Hindus, Volume XI: Samkhya Philosophy, 1915, by Nandalal Sinha
“Chapter IV: The Samkhya System,” Indian Philosophy, Vol. 2, 1927, by S. Radhakrishnan
“Early Sāmkhya, An Essay on Its Historical Development According to the Texts,” 1937, by E. H. Johnston
Classical Sāmkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, 1969, by Gerald James Larson
The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4: Samkhya, 1987, by Gerald James Larson, Ram Shankar Bhattacharyglisha, Karl H. Potter