Definitions

Kapila Rishi (Sk.). A great sage, a great adept of antiquity; the author of the Sankhya philosophy.

Sânkhya (Sk.). The system of philosophy founded by Kapila Rishi, a system of analytical metaphysics, and one of the six Darshanas or schools of philosophy. It discourses on numerical categories and the meaning of the twenty-five tatwas (the forces of nature in various degrees). This “atomistic school,” as some call it, explains nature by the interaction of twenty-four elements with purusha (spirit) modified by the three gunas (qualities), teaching the eternity of pradhâna (primordial, homogeneous matter), or the self-transformation of nature and the eternity of the human Egos.

Sânkhya Yoga (Sk.). The system of Yoga as set forth by the above school.

Tattwa (Sk.). Eternally existing “That”; also, the different principles in Nature, in their occult meaning. Tattwa Samâsa is a work of Sânkhya philosophy attributed to Kapila himself.

Theosophical Glossary, H. P. Blavatsky


Texts

Ṣaṣṭi-tantra Śāstra (not extant)
Tattva-samāsa
The Sāṃkhya-Kārikā
Sāṃkhya Sūtras
Sāṃkhya-Sāra


Translations


Selected Articles, Commentaries, etc.


Further Reading:

Bibliography entry for Samkhya, from the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies

Philosophy of the Hindus, Part I,” 1823, by T. H. Colebrooke

The Sacred Books of the Hindus, Volume XI: Samkhya Philosophy, 1915, by Nandalal Sinha

Chapter IV: The Samkhya System,” Indian Philosophy, Vol. 2, 1927, by S. Radhakrishnan

Early Sāmkhya, An Essay on Its Historical Development According to the Texts,” 1937, by E. H. Johnston

Classical Sāmkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, 1969, by Gerald James Larson

The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4: Samkhya, 1987, by Gerald James Larson, Ram Shankar Bhattacharyglisha, Karl H. Potter