Introduction: “On the Tattvasamāsa and its place in Sāṃkhya,” by Prof. Max Müller


SANSKRIT TRANSLITERATION (IAST) TRANSLATION
1. aṣṭau prakṛtayaḥ || 1. Eight Natures (prakṛtis)
2. ṣoḍaśa vikārāḥ || 2. Sixteen Transformations (vikārās)
3. puruṣaḥ || 3. Spirit (puruṣa)
4. traiguṇyam || 4. Three Qualities (gunas)
5. saṃcaraḥ || 5. Emanation
6. pratisaṃcaraḥ || 6. Withdrawal
7. adhyātmam adhibhūtam adhidaivataṃ ca || 7. The Supreme Self; The Supreme [Substrate of] Elemental Nature; and The Supreme Diety
8. pañcābhibuddhayaḥ || 8. Five [Functions/Aspects] of Intellect (buddhi)
9. pañca karmayonayaḥ || 9. Five Sources of Action (karma)
10. pañca vāyavaḥ || 10. Five Breaths or Vital Winds (vāyus)
11. pañca karmātmānaḥ || 11. Five “Selves” of Action (karmātmans)
12. pañcaparvāvidyā || 12. Five Knots of Ignorance (avidyā)
13. aṣṭāviṃśatidhāśaktiḥ || 13. Twenty-Eight-fold Incapacity (aśakti)
14. navadhā tuṣṭiḥ || 14. Nine Contentments (tuṣṭi)
15. aṣṭadhā siddhiḥ || 15. Eight Attainments (siddhi)
16. daśa mūlikārthāḥ || 16. Ten Root Singular-Objects (eka-artha)
17. anugrahaḥ sargaḥ || 17. The Supportive [Intellectual] Creation
18. caturdaśavidho bhūtasargaḥ || 18. The Fourteen-fold Elemental Creation
19. trividho bandhaḥ || 19. Threefold Bondage (bandha)
20. trividho mokṣaḥ || 20. Threefold Liberation (mokṣa)
21. trividhaṃ pramāṇam || 21. Threefold Means of Right Cognition (pramā)
22. trividhaṃ duḥkham || 22. Threefold Agitation (duḥkha)
23. etat paramparayā yāthātathyam || 23. This is the succession (parampara) according to reality (tat)
24. etat sarvaṃ jñātvā kṛtakṛtyaḥ syāt || 24. Knowing the whole of this, one has accomplished his task
25. na punastrividhena duḥkhenābhibhūyate || 25. Never again will the threefold misery come to be [for him]

Thus the Compendium is completed.


Further resources:

James R. Ballantyne, A Lecture on the Sānkhya Philosophy, embracing the text of the Tattwa Samāsa, 1850 (includes English trans. of the Tattva-samāsa and commentary (the Sāṃkhya-krama-dīpikā)

Prof. Max Müller, The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy, p. 242 etc. (Tattva-samāsa translation, commentary and analysis)

T. R. Chintamani, A Note on the Date of the Tattvasamāsa, 1928 (includes Sanskrit (devanagari) of the text, with analysis of its antiquity)

Gopinath Kaviraj, A Short Note on Tattvasamāsa, 1938 (includes an analysis of the number of sūtras in the text, with a comparison of several MS.)

Gerald James Larson, The format of technical philosophical writing in ancient India: Inadequacies of conventional translations, 1980 (includes an English translation of the text, along with a proposition on how one may interpret the text to reveal the series of prime numbers)

Gerald James Larson, Ram Shankar Bhattacharyglisha, Karl H. Potter, The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4: Samkhya, 1987, p. 443-44 (English translation of the text, based on Ṣimānanda’s commentary, the Sāṃkhyatattvavivecana)


Sanskrit Transliterations:

Tattva-samāsa [4 versions]

Bhāvāgaṇeśa’s Tattvayāthārthyadīpana [commentary on the Tattva-samāsa]

Sāṃkhyasūtravivaraṇa [commentary on the Tattva-samāsa]

Sarvopakāriṇī [commentary on the Tattva-samāsa]

Ṣimānandadīkṣita / Sāṃkhyatattvavivecana [commentary on the Tattva-samāsa]

Tattvasamāsasūtravṛttiḥ / Kramadīpikā [commentary on the Tattva-samāsa]