The following definitions are from the Theosophical Glossary, unless otherwise noted or placed in square brackets.
[Sufism. The orders of Mystic Islam.]
[Islamic Golden Age. A period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.]
Avicenna. The latinized name of Abu-Ali al Hoséen ben Abdallah Ibn Sina; a Persian philosopher, born 980 A.D., though generally referred to as an Arabian doctor. On account of his surprising learning he was called “the Famous,” and was the author of the best and the first alchemical works known in Europe. All the Spirits of the Elements were subject to him, so says the legend, and it further tells us that owing to his knowledge of the Elixir of Life, he still lives, as an adept who will disclose himself to the profane at the end of a certain cycle.
Ar-Abu Nasr-al-Farabi. Called in Latin Alpharabius, a Persian, and the greatest Aristotelian philosopher of the age. He was born in 950 A.D., and is reported to have been murdered in 1047. He was an Hermetic philosopher and possessed the power of hypnotizing through music, making those who heard him play the lute laugh, weep, dance and do what he liked. Some of his works on Hermetic philosophy may be found in the Library of Leyden.
Selected Articles, Commentaries, etc.